Nickel-cadmium batteries (Ni-Cd)
Nickel–cadmium Ni-Cd rechargeable battery technology is one of the most tried and tested, featuring significant current efficiency, good performance in low temperatures (down to -40oC) and reliability. The memory effect is their downside. Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries deliver approximately 1000 charge and discharge cycles. It is recommended to charge and discharge them in full cycles, with an optimal 16 hour charging period using C/10 current (the rechargeable battery capacity C divided by 10).
These cells are phased out by nickel–hydride Ni-MH and lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology, which feature larger capacities and smaller mass. Today Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries are sued in medical devices, military equipment (e.g. radio communication), emergency systems and measurement instruments.